This test is a Molecular Multiplex Analysis in which the following are reviewed:
- Protein markers (tumor markers).
- Analysis of circulating tumor cells (ctc).
- A transcriptomic profile (genetic expression) is made.
- Genetic profile search for point mutations, deletions / duplications and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
- Epigenetic profile (methylation study).
- Pharmacogenetic analysis.
The purpose of this test is to identify the patient’s current status and their molecular cancer profiles and find the best possible treatment. Identify if the patient has residual cancer and, if so, identify which therapeutic tools are the most appropriate for their specific cancer.
|Type of diagnostic test||What analyzes|
|Profile of genetic variations||P53, RAS:K-RAS, H-RAS, N-RAS. BRAF, EGFR, APC, BRCA|
|Epigenetic Profile||P16, RASSF1A, BRCA1, APC, E-CAD, MGMT, GST-P1, DAP, Kinase, DAPK, PpENK, UCHL1, NPTX2, SARP2, RAR-beta2, SFRP1 and SOCS1|
|Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC)||Cytokeratin (CK), Type 7, Type 20, Type 19, Ep-CAM, Mucin type 1,2,7 and 16, E-CAD, MAGE-A: Type A1, A3, A6, A12. Vimentin and desmin. PSA and PSMA, Mamaglobin and GCDFP, NSE and chromogranin, Thyroglobulin, AFP, HCCR, MART-1, HnRNP-A2 / B1, PTC rearrangement: PTC1, PTC2, PTC3, BCR / ABL, Philadelphia chromosome, Ki-67, Bcl2, EGFR, HER-2, VEGF and VEGF receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, NF-Kapp B, PI3K, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), CD44, CD24, CD133, CD10, CD31 / CD34, CD45, Insulin receptor-IGF-1, C-kit, HSP, MTOR, RhoGTPase|
|Virus detection||HPV, EBV, HIV, Hepatitis B and C|
|Tumor markers||Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), PSA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, CA72-4, CYFRA, Beta-HCG, NSE, TPA, SCC|
|Pharmacogenetics||K-RAS, BRAF, EGFR, PTEN, PI3K, BRCA1, MGMT, BCR / ABL, ERCC1, RRMI, ERCC2 / XPD, XRCC3, GST-P1, Sigma Factor, Timidylate Synthase (TS), DPD, TP: TYMS, OPRT : UPMS, MTHFR, UGT1A1, SLCO1B1, Glycoprotein P (Pgp), Topoisomerase 1 and 2.|
|Nutrigenetics||Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), Vitamin D3, Calcitrol, Astragalus Saponin (AST), Beta-Glucan, Melatonin, Inositolhexaphosphate (IP6), Alpha-TEA Quercetin, Resveratol, Curcumin, Soy Isoflavones, Sulforapane, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ( EGCG), Lycopene and Piperine|
Characteristics of Cancer
Cancer cells have a different set of characteristics than normal cells:
- It continuously proliferates (continues to grow) and autonomously and without external growth stimulating signal despite the signal inhibiting external growth.
- He escapes death (apoptosis), he does not die.
- It causes its own blood vessels (angiogenesis).
- Invades and metastasizes to distant organs (diffuses).
- Resists the attack of immune defense mechanism and chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy (resistance to therapy).
- It consists of multiple duplications. It evolves over time and selects the best clone for survival (regulation and complex cellular activity).
Cancer develops from multiple genetic changes, including the change of the genetic code (mutation), or deletion, the amplification of the gene and the change of chromosomes, the change of gene expression, methylation, etc. As cancer develops from multiple genetic changes, it is very complex. In addition, it is highly variable in genomic characteristics. Each cancer is different from each other. In addition, the cancer genome is unstable and changes continuously and evolves in response to the environment and therapy. The best cancer clone for its survival is finally selected and ends up winning against the therapy. This is the reason why cancer is so difficult to treat. Advanced cancer is in a stage with more mutated and therefore more difficult to treat than early cancer. Therefore, it is best to detect cancer at its early stage.
The above are the reasons why cancer is so difficult to detect and cure. It is impossible to detect each type of cancer through a single type of technology. It is also impossible to cure all cancers by any single treatment modality. Therefore, the cancer diagnostic method is rapidly evolving into Molecular Multiplex testing using Biochip and Bioinformatics that can detect multiple abnormalities. Cancer treatment is also becoming individualized therapy, which is adapted to the result of multiplex molecular assays. The Multiplex test means that it must be able to look at all cancer molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins), all possible changes (genetic variations, abnormal expression, methylation, etc.) and all important genes and proteins. Genolife is one of the companies specialized in molecular diagnostics that has the capacity to do this Molecular Multiplex assay, which is called ‘CANSOLUTION’.
How is cancer of blood and body fluids detected without the need for a biopsy?
The cancer releases abnormal proteins, abnormal DNA, abnormal RNA and cancer cells to body fluids (blood, feces, sputum, urine, etc.). We can detect cancer cells, abnormal proteins and abnormal DNA or RNA released from cancer cells in the bodily fluids of patients with malignant tumors even when the tumor size is too small to be visible by the radiological study or endoscope (ie, a less than 10 mm). Nowadays, protein tumor markers are used in clinical practice to detect cancer, however, this is never enough. Protein tumor marker is only one part of the cancer puzzle, so we can detect only 25-50% of the cancer and usually in the late stage. To detect the majority of cancer in its initial stage, we have to analyze all the pieces of the puzzle, that is, abnormal DNA (genetic variations, methylations, etc.) and abnormal RNA markers of circulating tumor cells (CTC), in addition to the markers of proteins. However, this is not easy. The key is how to detect multiple and complex cancer molecular changes with precision and high performance form.
Genolife uses Microarray (gene chip) Multiplex specifically developed for cancer diagnosis, through which it is possible to analyze the expression and methylation of hundreds of key genes related to cancer.
We also have another advanced facility including automated sequencing analysis, next-generation sequencing, real-time PCR Multiplex, ELISA and protein chip assays. Through the use of all this methodology and the computerized analysis of all data, the presence of cancer cells, DNA, abnormal RNA and proteins released from circulating cancer cells is detected. We call this a Multiplex molecular testing system for the diagnosis of cancer.
This can accurately detect cancer of the blood sample in its early stage and even in the precancerous stage when the cancer is not visible. This is called “LIQUID BIOPSY”. This study has more than 95% sensitivity to detect cancer, which is far superior to that of the conventional in vitro diagnostic test using the limited number of tumor protein markers (30-40%) and the diagnostic test in vitro using the study of imaging such as radiological study or endoscopy.
Our Molecular Multiplex Cancer test using the chip can also help cancer management in each patient. The outcome and prognosis of cancer can be predicted. It is able to detect the remaining cancer or recurrent cancer after primary treatment and thus give additional therapy guidelines. In addition, targeted therapies can be given to each cancer depending on the genomic and genetic characteristics of each cancer and each patient. This can drastically improve the success rate of cancer therapy.